Principles underlying financial statement reporting and notes

1. Fundamental principles underlying financial statement reporting

VP Bank Ltd, which has its registered office in Vaduz, Liechtenstein, was established in 1956 and is one of the three largest banks in Liechtenstein. Today, VP Bank Group owns subsidiary companies in Zurich, Luxembourg, the British Virgin Islands (BVI) and Hong Kong, a branch in Singapore and a representative office in Hong Kong. As of 31 De­- cember 2023, VP Bank Group employed 1,007.2 persons, expressed as full-time equivalents (as of the end of the previous year: 935.0 persons).

Wealth management and investment consulting services for private and institutional investors, as well as lending, constitute its core activities.

Values disclosed in the financial statements are expressed in thousands of Swiss francs. The 2023 financial statements were drawn up in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards applicable in the European Union (EU IFRS) and with Liechtenstein law. 


Post-balance-sheet-date events

There were no post-balance-sheet-date events that mate­rially affect the balance sheet and income statement for 2023.

The Board of Directors reviewed and approved the conso­lidated financial statements in its meeting of 22 February 2024. These consolidated financial statements will be ­submitted for approval to the annual general meeting of 26 April 2024.


2. Assumptions and uncertainties in estimates

The Board of Directors is responsible for issuing accounting directives. The IFRS Accounting Standards® (hereinafter IFRS) contain provisions requiring the management of VP Bank Group to make assumptions and estimates in drawing up the consolidated financial statements. The significant accounting principles are described in this part to show how their application affects the reported income and expenses, assets and liabilities and disclosure of ­contingent liabilities. The assumptions and estimates are reviewed regularly and are based upon historical experience and other factors, including anticipated developments arising from probable future events. Actual future results may differ from these estimates.


Changes in estimates

No material changes in estimates were made or applied. Further remarks about estimates can be found in the corresponding tables in the notes (expected credit losses, goodwill, intangible assets, legal cases, provisions, share-based remuneration, income taxes, pension plans).


3. Summary of the main accounting policies

3.1 Consolidation policies

Fully consolidated companies

The consolidated financial statements encompass the financial statements of VP Bank Ltd, Vaduz, as well as those of its subsidiary companies, which are all presented as a single economic unit. Subsidiary companies which are directly or indirectly controlled by VP Bank Group are consolidated. Subsidiary companies are consolidated as of the date on which control is transferred and are deconsolidated as of the date control ends.


Method of capital consolidation

Capital consolidation is undertaken in accordance with the purchase method, whereby the shareholders’ equity of the consolidated company is netted against the carrying value of the shareholding in the parent company as of the date of acquisition or the date of establishment.

After initial consolidation, changes arising from business activities, which are reflected in the current results of the accounting period in the consolidated financial statements, are allocated to income reserves. The effects of intra-group transactions are eliminated when the consolidated financial statements are drawn up.


3.2. General policies

Trade versus settlement date

The trade-date method of recording purchases or sales of financial assets and liabilities is applied. This means that transactions are recorded in the balance sheet as of the date when the trade is entered into and not on the date when trade is subsequently settled.


Revenue recognition

Revenues from services are recorded when the related service is rendered. Portfolio management fees, securities account fees and similar revenues are recorded on a pro rata basis over the period during which the service is ­rendered. Interest is recorded in the period during which it accrues. Dividends are recorded as and when they are received.


Foreign-currency translation

Functional currency and reporting currency:

The consolidated financial statements are expressed in Swiss francs (CHF).

For the purpose of drawing up the consolidated financial statements, balance sheets of Group companies denominated in a foreign currency are translated into CHF at the year-end exchange rate. Average exchange rates for the reporting period are applied for the translation of items of the income statement, the statement of comprehensive income and the statement of cash flows. Foreign-currency translation differences resulting from exchange rate changes between the beginning and end of the year and the difference in annual results at average and closing exchange rates are recognised in other comprehensive income.


Domestic versus foreign

The term “domestic” also includes Switzerland.


3.3 Financial instruments


VP Bank Group subdivides the financial instruments, to which traditional financial assets and liabilities as well as equity instruments also belong, as follows:

Financial instruments to be recorded via the income statement (“fair value through profit or loss” [FVTPL]) – “trading portfolios” and “financial instruments measured at fair value”

Financial instruments measured at amortised cost

Financial instruments at fair value, with changes in value and impairment losses recorded in the statement of other comprehensive income (“fair value through other comprehensive income” [FVTOCI])

The allocation of the financial instruments is made at the time of their initial recognition in accordance with the ­criteria of IFRS 9. 


Trading portfolios

Financial assets held for trading purposes are measured at fair value. Short items in securities are disclosed as liabilities arising from trading portfolios. Realised and unrealised gains and losses are recorded in income from trading activities after deduction of related transaction costs. Interest and dividends from trading activities are recorded under trading income.

Fair values are based on quoted market prices if an active market exists. Should no active market exist, the fair value is determined by reference to traders’ quotes or external pricing models.


Financial instruments measured at amortised cost

Investments where the objective consists of holding the financial asset in order to realise the contractual payment flows therefrom and which are made up solely of interest as well as the redemption of parts of the nominal value are recognised at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

A financial asset recognised at amortised cost is subject to the process for credit loss expenses described below. If an impairment has occurred, the carrying value is reduced to the recoverable amount to be recognised in the income statement through the item “Credit loss expenses”. 

Interest is recognised in the period when it accrues using the effective interest method and is reported in interest income under “Interest income from financial instruments measured at amortised cost”.


Financial instruments measured at fair value (FVTPL)

Financial instruments not meeting the aforementioned criteria are recognised at fair value. The ensuing gain/loss is reported in “Income from financial investments” under the item “Income from financial instruments measured at fair value”.

Insofar as the criteria of IFRS 9 are met, a financial instrument may be designated and recorded under this category upon initial recognition. Liquid equity instruments that are managed on a benchmark basis with a medium-term investment horizon are measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL).

Interest and dividend income are recorded in “Income from financial investments” under the items “Interest income from FVTPL financial instruments” and “Dividend income from FVTPL financial instruments”.


Financial instruments at fair value with recording of changes in value and impairment losses through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

Investments in equity instruments are recognised in the balance sheet at fair value. Changes in value are recognised in the income statement, except in those cases for which VP Bank Group has decided that they are to be recognised at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI).

For illiquid equity instruments (private equity) as well as investments in high-dividend individual shares, the OCI option is applied, which results in measurement at fair value (FVTOCI). The focus of these investments is on long-term value generation.

Dividends are reported in “Income from financial investments” under the item “Dividends from FVTOCI financial instruments”.


Bank and client loans

At the time of their initial recognition, loans to banks and clients are measured at their effective cost, which corresponds to the fair value at the time the loans are granted. Subsequent measurement thereof is made at amortised cost, with the effective interest method being applied. Interest on non-overdue loans is accounted for using the accrual method and reported under interest income using the effective interest method.

The carrying value of receivables for which micro fair-value hedge accounting is applied is adjusted by the changes in fair value attributable to the hedged risk.


Credit loss expenses in accordance with IFRS 9 impairment
Bases for modelling expected credit losses

According to IFRS 9 “Financial Instruments”, all items on the assets side that are subject to potential credit risk and are not already recognised at fair value through profit or loss are allocated to one of these three stages:

Stage 1 (Performing)

Stage 2 (Under-performing)

Stage 3 (Non-performing)

Upon settlement or purchase, the financial instruments in question are initially classified as “Performing” (stage 1). Should the credit risk of the financial instrument increase significantly during its term, the item is considered to be “Under-performing” (stage 2). Should a counterparty be in default or a further payment appear improbable, the asset is to be classified as “Non-performing” (stage 3).

For stage 1, the expected credit loss is to be computed and recognised based on credit occurrences expected over 12 months, for stages 2 and 3, on the other hand, over the remaining term of the instrument.

The expected credit loss in accordance with IFRS 9 must represent an undistorted probability-weighted amount which was determined through the evaluation of a series of possible scenarios as well as taking the present value into consideration. Furthermore, all available information on past events and current conditions are to be appropriately taken into account.


Implementation of IFRS 9 impairment at VP Bank Group

All asset items exposed to a potential credit risk and not already measured at fair value are covered. These include, in particular, amounts due from banks and clients, financial investments measured at amortised cost, money market receivables, and cash and cash equivalents. Also affected are off-balance sheet items, such as credit and performance guarantees and irrevocable loan commitments.

At VP Bank Group, the modelling of expected credit losses is undertaken according to specific balance sheet segments. During the process of segmentation, a distinction is made whether an external or internal rating exists.

In the case of items with an external rating by Moody’s or Standard & Poor’s, this is used as the principal criterion for the allocation to a particular stage. In accordance with internal guidelines, items considered as investment grade are allocated to stage 1. Should a rating move outside the investment-grade segment or should it be in non-compliance with the requirements for deposits with banks or financial investments, after a review has been carried out, stage 2 applies. Should external rating agencies issue a default rating, the instrument drops to stage 3.

In the case of items with an internal rating of VP Bank Group, the allocation is made on the basis of whether the debtor is in default of payment regarding interest and/or amortisation of capital. From the moment a payment is overdue for 31 days or more, the item falls into stage 2, and if it is more than 90 days overdue to stage 3. In addition, a deterioration of the internal rating or a classification as a credit with an enhanced risk of default is used for the stage allocation.

In the case of items which are not internally or externally rated, primarily overdrafts, a possible default by the debtor regarding payment of interest and principal in excess of 30 and 90 days, respectively, or the classification as a loan with elevated risk serve as the criteria for the stage allocation (where required, inclusion on the watch list). In addition, any collateral shortfalls for these items are taken into account.

In the case of items for which financial collateral or a guarantee from an externally rated third party exist, the credit risk of the debtor is substituted by that of the guarantor or third party (substitution approach). 

At VP Bank Group, the modelling of expected credit losses (ECL) is generally performed on the level of individual transactions and on the basis of various risk parameters (especially probability of default, the loss given default, the amount receivable and the discount rate). 

Wherever possible, reference is made to external data to determine the default probabilities. This is particularly the case whenever an external rating exists. Internal ratings reproduce, to an approximate extent, external ratings. The estimation of the loss given default focusses on the value of the collateral securing the credit. In the case of unsecured receivables with an external rating, assumptions based upon market-related considerations are made.

As an alternative to a separate determination of the default probability and loss given default, a loss rate approach to compute the ECL can be applied for individual portfolios. This concerns primarily lombard loans. In such cases, VP Bank Group uses a combined loss rate.

In addition to the use of past and current information to estimate the ECL, VP Bank Group also takes into account prospective information, in particular forecasts of future economic developments. 

For externally rated items, the ECL is initially estimated on the basis of cyclical parameters. The use of prospective information is based on existing early-warning systems and modifications to default probabilities. In addition, rating outlooks are taken into consideration.

For items with an internal rating, the ECL is also estimated on the basis of prospective, cyclical parameters. In the case of mortgage loans and related contingent liabilities, for example, this concerns primarily the loss given default. In this manner, possible movements in real-estate prices are depicted.

The computation of the ECL is based upon one base and two alternative scenarios which map macroeconomic ­conditions that differ. The base scenario reflects the future economic development which is estimated to be the most probable whilst an up and down scenario represents a relative improvement or deterioration, respectively, of the macroeconomic situation. The assumed probabilities of occurrence of the up and down scenario are identical.


Amounts due to banks and clients

Amounts due to banks and clients are accounted for at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Interest is accounted for using the accrual method and reported under interest income using the effective interest method. Whenever micro fair-value hedge accounting is applied, secured liabilities are adjusted by the changes in fair value attributable to the hedged risk. 


Derivative financial instruments

Derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value and presented in the balance sheet. The fair value is determined on the basis of stock exchange quotations or option pricing models. Realised and unrealised gains and losses are taken to income.


Hedge accounting

In accordance with the risk policy of the Group, VP Bank Group deploys certain derivatives for hedging purposes. From an economic point of view, the opposing measurement effects resulting from the underlying and hedging transactions offset each other. As these transactions do not, however, correspond to the strict and specific IFRS provisions, an asymmetrical representation, in bookkeeping terms, of the changes in value of the underlying trans­action and the hedge ensues. Fair-value changes of such derivatives are reported in trading and interest income, respectively, in the appropriate period.

The rules of hedge accounting can be applied voluntarily. Under certain conditions, the use of hedge accounting enables the risk-management activities of a company to be represented in the annual financial statements. This occurs through the juxtaposition of expenses and income from hedging instruments with those from the designated underlying transactions with regard to certain risks.

A hedging relationship qualifies for hedge accounting if all of the following qualitative attributes are fulfilled:

The hedging relationship consists of eligible hedging instruments and eligible underlying transactions.

At the inception of the hedging relationship, a formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship is at hand which makes reference to the company’s risk-management strategy and objective for this hedge.

The hedging relationship meets the effectiveness requirements.

The hedging relationship must be documented at inception. The documentation must encompass, in particular, the identification of the hedging instrument and of the hedged underlying transaction as well as designating the hedged risk and the method to determine the effectiveness of the hedging relationship. In order to qualify for hedge accounting, the hedging relationship must satisfy the following effectiveness requirements at the inception of each hedging period:

An economic relationship must exist between the ­underlying transaction and the hedging instrument.

Default risk does not dominate the changes in value resulting from the economic hedge.

The hedge ratio accurately reflects the quantity of the underlying transaction used for the actual economic hedge as well as the quantity of the hedging instrument.


Fair-value hedge accounting

IFRS 9 provides for the use of fair-value hedge accounting to avoid one-sided resultant effects for derivatives which serve to hedge the fair value of on-balance-sheet assets or liabilities against one or several defined risks. Exposed to market risk and/or interest rate risk, in particular, are the Group’s credit transactions and its portfolio of securities insofar as they relate to fixed interest-bearing papers. ­Interest rate swaps are used primarily to hedge these risks. In accordance with fair-value hedge-accounting rules, the derivative financial instruments at fair value deployed for hedging purposes are recorded as market values from derivative hedging instruments. For the hedged asset and/or hedged liability, the opposing changes in fair value resulting from the hedged risk are also to be recognised in the balance sheet. The opposing valuation changes from the hedging instruments as well as from the hedged underlying items are recognised in the income statement as gains/losses from hedge accounting. That portion of the changes in fair value which is not related to the hedged risk is dealt with in accordance with the rules pertaining to the respective valuation category. 

Cash-flow hedge accounting as well as portfolio fair-value hedges were used neither in the current financial year nor the previous year.


Debt securities issued

Medium-term notes are recorded at their issuance price (fair value) and measured subsequently at amortised cost.

Bonds are recorded at fair value plus transaction costs upon initial recognition. Fair value corresponds to the ­consideration received. They are subsequently accounted for at amortised cost. In this connection, the effective interest method is employed in order to amortise the difference between the issue price and redemption amount over the duration of the debt instrument.


Treasury shares

Shares in VP Bank Ltd, Vaduz, held by VP Bank Group are recognised in shareholders’ equity as treasury shares and deducted at cost. Changes in fair value are not recognised. The difference between sales proceeds of treasury shares and the related acquisition cost is shown under capital reserves.


3.4 Other policies


Provisions are recognised in the balance sheet only if VP Bank Group has a liability to a third party which is ­attributable to an occurrence in the past, if the outflow of resources with economic benefit to fulfil this liability is probable, and if this liability can be reliably estimated. If an outflow of funds is unlikely to occur or the amount of the liability cannot be reliably estimated, a contingent liability is shown.


Impairment in the value of non-current assets

The recoverability of property, plant and equipment is always reviewed whenever the carrying value appears to be overvalued because of occurrences or changed ­circumstances. If the carrying value exceeds the realisable value, a valuation adjustment is recorded. Any subsequent recovery in value is recognised in the income statement. If the review of the recoverability of an item of property, plant and equipment reveals a changed useful life, the residual carrying value is depreciated on a scheduled basis over the redefined useful life.

The recoverability of goodwill is reviewed at least once a year. If the carrying value exceeds the realisable value, an extraordinary write-down takes place.


Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment comprises bank premises, other real estate, furniture and equipment, leasing, as well as IT systems. Property, plant and equipment is measured at acquisition cost less operationally necessary depreciation and amortisation as well as impairments.

Property, plant and equipment are capitalised provided their acquisition or production cost can be reliably determined, they exceed the capitalisation threshold and they provide a future economic benefit. 

Depreciation and amortisation are charged on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives:

Estimated useful life

25 years

10 to 15 years

No depreciation

5 to 9 years

3 to 7 years

The depreciation and amortisation methods and useful lives are subject to review at each year-end. 

Minor purchases are charged directly to general and administrative expenses. Maintenance and renovation expenses are generally recorded under general and administrative expenses. If the expense is substantial and results in a significant increase in value, the amounts are capitalised. These are depreciated or amortised over their useful lives.



If, in the case of a takeover, the acquisition costs are greater than the net assets acquired, as valued in accordance with uniform Group guidelines (including identifiable and capitalisable intangible assets), the remaining amount ­constitutes the acquired goodwill. Goodwill is capitalised and subject to an annual review for any required valuation adjustments. The recognition of goodwill is made in the functional currency and is translated on the balance sheet date at rates prevailing at year-end.


Intangible assets

Purchased software is capitalised and amortised over three to seven years. Minor purchases are charged directly to general and administrative expenses.

Internally generated intangible assets such as software are capitalised insofar as the prerequisites for capitalisation set forth in IAS 38 are met, that is, it is probable that the Group will derive a future economic benefit from the asset and the costs of the asset can be both identified and measured in a reliable manner. Internally produced software meeting these criteria and purchased software are recognised in the balance sheet under software. The amounts capitalised in this manner are amortised on a straight-line basis over their useful lives. The period of amortisation is three to seven years. 

Other intangible assets include separately identifiable intangible assets arising from business combinations, as well as certain purchased client-related assets and the like, and are amortised on a straight-line basis over an ­estimated useful life of five to ten years. Other intangible assets are capitalised in the balance sheet at cost at the time of acquisition.



The Group rents various office and warehouse buildings, as well as vehicles. Rental agreements are usually concluded for fixed periods of two to eight years, but options to extend may be included.

Leasing relationships are recognised as rights of use and corresponding lease liabilities are recognised at net current value. The discounting is carried out at the marginal debt capital interest rate, which corresponds to the interest rate that VP Bank Group would have to pay if it were to borrow the funds in order to acquire an asset with a comparable value and comparable conditions in a comparable economic environment. Each lease payment is divided into repayment and financing expenses. Finance charges are recognised in interest income over the term of the leasing relationship so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability for each period. The right of use is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the lease term or the economic useful life, whichever is shorter, through the income statement item “Depreciation of property, plant and equipment”. In the balance sheet, the rights of use are capitalised under property, plant and equipment, and the lease liabilities are reported under other liabilities.


Current and deferred taxes

Current income taxes are computed based on the applicable taxation laws in the individual countries and are booked as expenses in the accounting period in which the related profits arise. They are shown as tax liabilities in the balance sheet.

The taxation effects of temporary differences between the values attributed to the assets and liabilities as reported in the consolidated balance sheet and their values reported for tax reporting purposes are recorded as deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities. Deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences or from the utilisation of tax loss carryforwards are only recognised if it is probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available against which these temporary differences or tax loss carryforwards can be offset.

Deferred tax assets and tax liabilities are computed using the rates of taxation which are expected to apply in the accounting period in which these tax assets will be realised or tax liabilities will be settled.

Tax assets and tax liabilities are netted if they relate to the same taxable entity, concern the same taxing jurisdiction and an enforceable right of offset exists.

Deferred taxes are credited or charged to shareholders’ equity if the tax relates to items which are directly credited or debited to shareholders’ equity in the same or another period. 

The tax savings anticipated from the utilisation of estimated future realisable loss carryforwards are capitalised. The probability of realising expected taxation benefits is considered when valuing a capitalised asset for future taxation relief. Tax assets arising from future taxation relief encompass deferred taxes on temporary differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet and those used for taxation purposes as well as tax savings from future estimated realisable loss carryforwards. Deferred taxation receivables in one sovereign taxation jurisdiction are offset against deferred taxation liabilities of the same jurisdiction if the enterprise has a right of offset of actual taxation liabilities and taxation receivables and the taxes are levied by the same taxing authorities. 


Retirement pension plans

VP Bank Group maintains several retirement pension plans for employees domestically and abroad, among which there are both defined-benefit and defined-contribution plans. In addition, there are schemes for service anniversaries which qualify as other long-term employee benefits.

The computation of accrued amounts and amounts due to these pension funds is based on statistical and actuarial calculations of experts.

For defined-benefit pension plans, pension costs are determined on the basis of various economic and demographic assumptions using the projected unit credit method, which take into account the number of insurance years actually earned through the date of valuation. The insurance years completed up to the valuation date are taken into account. The computational assumptions taken into account by the Group include the expected future rate of salary increases, long-term interest earned on retirement assets, retirement patterns and life expectancy. The valuations are carried out annually by independent actuaries. Plan assets are remeasured annually at fair values.

Pension costs comprise three components:

Service costs, which are recognised in the income ­statement

Net interest expense, which is also recognised in the income statement

Revaluation components, which are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income

Service costs encompass current service costs, past service costs and gains and losses from non-routine plan settlements. Gains and losses from plan curtailments are deemed to equate to past service costs.

Employee contributions and contributions from third ­parties reduce service cost expense and are deducted therefrom provided that these derive from pension plan rules or a de facto obligation.

Net interest expense corresponds to the amount derived from multiplying the discount rate with the pension liability or plan assets at the beginning of the year. In the process, capital flows of less than one year and movements thereof are taken into account on a weighted basis.

Revaluation components encompass actuarial gains and losses from the movement in the present value of pension obligations and plan assets. Actuarial gains and losses result from changes in assumptions and experience adjustments. Gains and losses on plan assets equate to the income from plan assets minus the amounts contained in net interest expense. Revaluation components also encompass movements in unrecognised assets less the effects contained in net interest expense. Revaluation components are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income and cannot be reclassified to income in future periods (recycling). The amounts recognised in the statement of comprehensive income can be reclassified within shareholders’ equity. Service costs and net interest expense are recorded in the consolidated financial statements under personnel expense. Revaluation components are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.

The pension liabilities or plan assets recognised in the consolidated financial statements correspond to the deficit or excess of funding of defined-benefit pension plans, respectively. The recognised pension assets are limited to the present value of the economic benefit of the Group arising from the future reduction in contributions or repayments.

For other long-term benefits, the present value of the acquired commitment is recorded as of the balance sheet date. Movements in present values are recorded directly in the income statement as personnel expense.

Employer contributions to defined-contribution pension plans are recognised in personnel expense on the date when the employee becomes entitled thereto.


4. Amendments in accounting principles and comparability

New and revised International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

Since 1 January 2023, the following new and revised standards and interpretations have taken effect and have no material impact on the consolidated financial statements of VP Bank Group:

Amendments to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements: disclosure of material accounting policy infor­mation rather than significant accounting policies

Amendments to IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors: Definition of Accounting Estimates

Amendments to IAS 12 Income Taxes: Deferred Tax ­related to Assets and Liabilities arising from a Single Transaction


The following future amendments do not have a ­material impact on the consolidated financial ­statements of VP Bank Group:

There are currently no new or amended IFRS or inter­­pretations that have a material impact on VP Bank Group.


5. Management of equity resources

The focus of value-oriented risk management is to achieve a sustainable return on the capital invested and one which, from the shareholders’ perspective, is commensurate with the risks involved. To achieve this goal, VP Bank Group supports a rigorous dovetailing of profitability and risk within the scope of the management of its own equity resources; it consciously abandons the goal of gaining short-term interest advantages at the expense of the security of capital. VP Bank Group manages all risks within the risk budget approved by the Board of Directors. In managing the equity resources, VP Bank Group measures both the equity required (minimum amount of equity to cover the bank’s risks in accordance with the requirements of applicable supervisory law) and the available eligible equity (VP Bank’s equity is computed in accordance with the criteria of the supervisory authorities) and projects their future development. Equity resources which VP Bank Group does not need for its growth or business activities are returned through dividend payments according to its long-term policy. Thus, through active management, VP Bank Group is able to maintain its robust capitalisation as well as its credit rating and continues to create sustainable value for the shareholders.


Capital indicators

The determination of the required capital and tier capital pursuant to Basel III is undertaken based on the IFRS consolidated financial statements, with unrealised gains being deducted from core capital. Total capital (core capital and supplementary capital) must amount to a minimum of 12.5 per cent of the risk-weighted assets.

Risk-weighted assets as of 31 December 2023 amounted to CHF 4.2 billion as compared with CHF 4.8 billion in the previous year. Core capital as of 31 December 2023 was CHF 1,057.7 million as compared with CHF 1,046.2 million in the previous year. The overall equity ratio increased by 3.2 percentage points, from 21.7 per cent on 31 December 2022 to 24.9 per cent on 31 December 2023. As of both 31 December 2023 and 31 December 2022, VP Bank Group was adequately capitalised in accordance with the respective guidelines of the FMA and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) currently in force. In 2023, VP Bank Group used no hybrid capital under eligible equity and, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), netted no assets against liabilities (balance sheet reduction).